Aug. 1, 1735: According to some sources, an agreement covering “amity and commerce” is reached by representatives of the British in New York and Western Abenaki, Housatonic, Mohegan and Schaghticoke Indians.
Aug. 2, 1689: A small force of 30 men, led by Lt. James Weems, are occupying the fort at Pemaquid, Maine. They are attacked by almost 100 Abenaki Indians. The soldiers eventually surrender, and those who aren’t killed are taken as prisoners to Canada.
Aug. 3, 1540: Hernando de Soto reached southern Georgia. He found the Indians there raising tame turkeys, caged opossums, corn, beans, pumpkins, cucumbers and plums.
Aug. 4, 1813: 500 warriors of the White Stick faction of the Creeks gather in Coweta, across the river in Alabama from modern Columbus, Georgia. With 200 Cherokee warriors, they make plans to attack a band of Red Stick Creeks, followers of Tecumseh, over 2,500 strong. The White Sticks are led by Tustunnuggee Thlucco and Tustunnuggee Hopoie.
Aug. 5, 1570: A Spanish colony expedition in sailing up the Chesapeake in Virginia, when they reach the area they will call Axaca somewhere near the Rappahannock. The local Indians will force the Spanish to abandon the effort.
Aug. 6, 1858: In 1858, Manuelito, a Navajo chief, discovered 60 head of his livestock shot by U.S. soldiers. Outraged, he confronted the commander at Fort Defiance and told him the land belonged to him and his people, not to the soldiers. Soldiers from the fort, augmented by 160 paid Zuni warriors, torched Manuelito’s fields and village. The chief then resolved to drive the soldiers off the land and commenced to rally other Navajo leaders for war.
Aug. 7, 1969: President Richard Nixon appoints Louis Bruce, Mohawk-Lakota, to become the third Indian commissioner of Indian affairs. In his long career, Bruce advised presidents from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Gerald Ford. Bruce died in 1989.
Aug. 8, 1699: The Tohome Indians live along the Gulf Coast in Alabama and Mississippi. In Biloxi, they formally establish peaceful relations with the French.
Aug. 9, 1542: New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
Aug. 10, 1861: Stand Watie’s Cherokee troops fight on the Confederate side at the Battle of Wilson’s Creek, in southern Missouri. The southerners are victorious; however, the participation of the Cherokees on the side of the south leads to further tensions among the Cherokees who wish to remain neutral. According to some sources, the first Cherokee to die in the Civil War falls during this battle.
Aug. 11, 3114 BCE: According to some Maya sources, the present creation takes place. Other sources say this happens on Aug. 12 or 13. It will end on Dec. 21, 23 or Dec. 24, 2012.
Aug. 12, 1676: King Philip dies. Hunted by a group of rangers led by Capt. Benjamin Church, he was fatally shot by a praying Indian named John Alderman, on Aug. 12, 1676, in the Miery Swamp near Mount Hope in Bristol, Rhode Island. After his death, his wife and 9-year-old son were captured and sold as slaves in Bermuda. Philip’s head was mounted on a pike at the entrance to Fort Plymouth, where it remained for more than two decades. His body was cut into quarters and hung in trees. Alderman was given Metacomet’s right hand as a reward.
Aug. 13, 1865: Crazy Woman’s Fork (Buffalo, Wyoming); The Powder River campaign against the Cheyenne and Lakota had been in the planning stages all spring and early summer, and after interminable supply delays, it finally got under way. Brig. Gen. Patrick E. Connor led the “Left Column” out of Fort Laramie on July 30. It consisted of 90 men each of the 7th Iowa and 11th Ohio cavalries, 116 of the 2nd California Cavalry, 95 Pawnee scouts under Capt. Frank North and 84 Omaha scouts. Accompanying them were 200 men of Col. James H. Kidd’s 6th Michigan Cavalry, who were to build a garrison a new fort on the Powder River. While the troops looked for a place to build a post, North led a scout of Pawnees down the Powder River, north of the main command. On Aug. 13, near Crazy Woman’s Fork, North chased a war party until he became separated from his support. The warriors shot North’s horse, and things looked grim for him when one of his scouts, Bob White, rode up. North ordered White to go for help. The scout stated, according to teamster Finn Burnett, “Me heap brave, me no run, you and me killem plenty Sioux, that better.” After possibly wounding a few warriors, other Pawnee scouts arrived to end the action.
Aug. 14, 1872: Battle at Pryor’s Fork; A railroad surveying expedition of 300 men under Col. E. Baker was attacked near the mouth of Pryor’s Fork, Montana, by a larger number of Sioux and Cheyennes, losing one man killed and having five wounded. The fighting lasted for several hours.
Aug. 15, 1952: Public Law 280 places Indian lands in California, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon and Wisconsin under criminal and civil jurisdiction of the states. The bill does not provide for Indian consent or consultation.
Aug. 16, 1865: Powder River (Northeastern Wyoming); While construction began on Fort Connor, near present-day Sussex, Wyoming, Frank North’s Pawnee scouts kept up a vigilant search for Cheyennes and Sioux. They trailed a band of Cheyennes who had been raiding along the Platte River and were heading north. The signs showed about 40 horses and mules and one travois. North, with 48 Pawnees and a number of white soldiers and civilians, caught up with the raiders on the Powder River about 50 miles north of Fort Connor. The Cheyennes assumed the approaching Indians were Cheyennes or Lakotas, for they made a friendly sign. Suddenly the Pawnees charged in, shouting. The fight was one-sided, the exuberant Pawnees killing 27 Cheyennes, including Yellow Woman, stepmother of George Bent. A wounded Cheyenne in the travois rolled himself over a steep cut bank, but a Pawnee saw him, climbed down and killed him with a saber. North’s scouts lost four horses, but captured 18 horses and 17 miles.
Aug. 17, 1755: Almost 400 Indians attack John Kilburn’s stockade at Walpole, Connecticut. Some sources say the Indians are led by King Philip. After a day of fighting, the Indians withdraw.
Aug. 18, 1812: Unable to control their warriors, tribal chiefs refuse Harrison’s invitation to attend a peace council at Piqua, Ohio.
Aug. 19, 1762: Gov. Thomas Velez Cachupin had a number of Indians living at Albiquiu [La Canada, New Mexico] tried for witchcraft sometime after 1762. They were conveniently condemned into servitude.
Aug. 20, 1789: An “Act Providing for the Expenses Which May Attend Negotiations or Treaties with the Indian Tribes, and the Appointment of Commissioners for Managing the Same” is approved by the U.S.
Aug. 21, 1831: The Shawnee at Wapakoneta and the Seneca on the Sandusky River relinquished their reservations by treaty and moved west.
Aug. 22, 1806: Pike’s expedition has reached a village of the Little Osage near the forks of the Osage River in modern Missouri. He holds a council here with both the Grand and Little Osage. The Little Osage are lead by Tuttassuggy or “The Wind,” and the Grand Osage by Cheveau Blanc, or White Hair.
Aug. 23, 1876: “Treaty 6 Between Her Majesty The Queen and The Plain and Wood Cree Indians and Other Tribes of Indians at Fort Carlton, Fort Pitt and Battle River with Adhesions” is signed in Canada.
Aug. 24, 1721: After decades of constant dispute with English settlers over the Pequot lands at Noank, the Pequots formally give up their planting rights there but retain their fishing rights in exchange for clear title to Mashantucket.
Aug. 25, 1607: Some 200 Indian warriors stormed the unfinished stockade at Jamestown, Virginia. Two settlers were killed and 10 seriously wounded before they were repulsed by cannon fire from the colonists’ three moored ships.
Aug. 26, 1842: The Caddos sign a treaty in Texas. They agree to visit other tribes and try to convince them to also sign treaties with Texas.
Aug. 27, 1878: Capt. James Egan and Troop K, Second Cavalry, are following a group of Bannocks, who have been stealing livestock along the Madison River. Near Henry’s Lake, Captain Egan’s forces skirmish with the Bannocks, and recover 56 head of livestock. The escaping Bannocks are starting to follow the trail taken by the Nez Perce, last year.
Aug. 28, 1607: Colonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown. Hostilities with the Indians ended as ambassadors said their emperor, Powhatan, had commanded local chiefs to live in peace with the English.
Aug. 29, 1758: The First State Indian reservation, in Brotherton, New Jersey, is established. It is primarily for the Lenni Lenape.
Aug. 30, 1645: A peace treaty between the Dutch, led by Willem Kieft, and several local tribes is signed at Fort Orange, in modern Albany. This treaty concludes a protracted conflict in the area.
Aug. 31, 2009: Florida’s Gov. Crist signed a 20-year gambling pact with the Seminole Indian tribe, which agreed to pay Florida $12.5 million a month for 30 months for running, currently illegal, slot machines and blackjack games.